CHAPTER 4 History of Sorghum Improvement P. Sanjana Reddy1, Belum V.S. Humans have used sorghum for millennia in Northeast Africa. Development of Some Agricultural Industries in Several African and Asian Countries (L. House, et al. History: Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) At one time, sorghum was an important crop and served as a sugar substitute for many people. Grain sorghum production increased 11% year-on-year to 430,000 tonnes. sorghum (countable and uncountable, plural sorghums) A cereal , Sorghum bicolor (syn. Globally, it produces approximately 70 million tons of grain from about 50 million ha o f land. '&!#43 www dpi nsw gov au 7hereverpossible useno tillandcontrolled traflcfordrylandcrops asthesemethods increasesoilmoisturestoragemorequicklyand Both sweet-stalked sorghums and grain sorghums were being cultivated in the 19th century. The sequences of large insert clones containing genomic DNA that is orthologous to the maize adh1 region were obtained for sorghum, rice, and the adh1 -homoeologous region of maize, a remnant of the tetraploid history of the Zea lineage. I. The grains are born in a dense cluster (known as a panicle) at the top of the plant. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species. Sorghum Syrup. The syrup has a rich, dark color and consistency similar to molasses but with a milder taste. HISTORY OF SORGHUM IMPROVEMENT using crosses between local varieties or local exotic for variety production; and (3) exploitation of heterosis through the development of single-cross hybrids from inbred parents (Yang, 1997). The advent of agriculture changed the lives of the people. The main use of sorghum worldwide is for food. ORIGIN AND HISTORY. Learning food history means that cultural study which involves multidisciplinary approaches from economics, sociology and demography, and even literature. ). Heterosis breeding has been the main method of breeding since 1965 in China. Sorghum malt and grain has been the main ingredient for centuries. African tribes have been brewing forms of sorghum beer longer than is recorded in history books. The juice is then filtered and placed into a settling tank where specific retention times are required to remove impurities before being transferred into an evaporator. The earliest known records of sorghum were found at an archaeological dig in northeastern Africa near the Egyptian-Sudanese border and date back to 8000 B.C. ). While presenting information in adequate detail for scientists, it is also an invaluable reference for growers, processors, and grain merchants. The English term molasses comes from the Portuguese melaço which in turn is derived from the Latin mel, meaning honey. As the availability of different grain and starch sources grew, maize (corn), millet, and cassava root were used as adjuncts to the sorghum beer to produce different flavors. Sweet sorghum is grown similarly to grain sorghum with the main differences being that it grows 7-10 feet tall and is harvested mostly for syrup. It is a tall growing grassy plant with flat leaves (like maize) and produces grains in a … Origins of Domesticated Sorghum and Its Early Diffusion to Indiaand China (C. Kimber). Description "Making Six Sigma Last is the most practical and helpful resource that I have seen on this subject. In spite of their agronomic importance, the genetic bases of their phenotype and adaptations are still not well understood. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. The Sorghum Checkoff is not responsible for the quality, accuracy or nature of the third-party link. When casting around for grains industry success stories, it could be difficult to top the story of sorghum. Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family and its edible starchy seeds. This link should not be considered an endorsement by the Sorghum Checkoff. Sorghum is a nutrient-packed grain that has been around for centuries. Sorghum is a staple food crop for millions of poor people in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia. Sorghum. Native African cereals (sorghum, millets) ensure food security to millions of low-income people from low fertility and drought-prone regions of Africa and Asia. industry_list += categories[f].category_name + ", "; Even more than most traditional foods, molasses has a history -- a definitely checkered past. } Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a gluten-free grain and is the fifth most commonly grown grain crop in the world behind wheat, rice, corn, and barley. An analysis of price history of SORGHUM is incomplete without looking at the past returns. Sorghum, like millet, is one of the plants that African people figured out how to farm and then spread to the rest of the world. Sorghum generally comes from small outfits in the Midwest or deep South. !'&!#43!'&!#43! It is the fifth most important cereal crop after wheat, corn, … Sorghum is also known as Mabele thoro, Amazinba and Amabele. Modern varieties grow 3-15 ft tall (1-5 m). Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. The first mention of it in the United States was by Benjamin Franklin in 1757 regarding broom making. }); Sorghum grain ranks 5th in cereals for global production (see cereal statistics).. Sorghum is a genus with many species and subspecies, and there are several types of sorghum, including grain sorghums, grass sorghums (for pasture and hay), sweet sorghums (for syrups), and Broomcorn. Sorghum was domesticated as a grain-crop approximately 5,000 years ago. history of sorghum The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in Northeastern Africa. Richard A. Frederiksen is the editor of Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, published by Wiley. Sorghum is among the most efficient crops in conversion of sola industry_list = industry_list.slice(0,-2); SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei industry = 'Industries'; History of Sorghum. Contributors. Recognizing the key developmental stages of sorghum can aid in making critical management decisions. Sorghum is truly a versatile crop that can be grown as a grain, forage or sweet crop. Sorghum brooms factory "Eco Brooms", Serbia, Balkan, Eu. The name "sorghum" comes from Italian "sorgo", in turn from Latin "Syricum (granum)" meaning "grain of Syria". Apartheid (“apartness” in the language of Afrikaans) was a system of legislation that upheld segregationist policies against non-white citizens of South Click cancel to return to SimplySorghum.com. Sorghum grows well even in arid climates, which is probably why it spread across Africa. Sorghum is a staple food crop for millions of poor people in the semiarid tropics of Africa and Asia. Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum (/ ˈ s ɔːr ɡ ə m /) and also known as great millet, durra, jowari / jowar, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production.Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. 2 Annual Historical Returns of SORGHUM. INTRODUCTION Sorghum,Sorghumbicolor(L.) (Moench), is astaple food for millions of the poorestand most foodinsecurepeople Sugar concentration is measured in Brix. After flowering, the grain begins to form. Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. Molasses was exported to the U.S. from the West Indies to make rum. When casting around for grains industry success stories, it could be difficult to top the story of sorghum. It’s a kind of gluten-free grain, about five feet tall, that grows wild all across Africa, Asia, and Australia. Sorghum adapted to a wide range of environments throughout Africa, spreading from the highlands of Ethiopia to the semi-arid Sahel. Sorghum is not native to the Western Hemisphere, but was introduced into the Caribbean area from Africa two or three centuries ago. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. In spite of their agronomic importance, the genetic bases of their phenotype and adaptations are still not well understood. By Amy GrantHave you ever heard of sorghum plants? Introduction. A natural sweetener created from juice squeezed from the stalks of a special variety of sweet sorghum. 840 pages. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, … In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology and … It is one of the most drought-tolerant cereal crops currently under cultivation. Sorghum doesn’t need very much rain, so it’s a good crop for China and Sudan and North Africa by around 8000 BC, and maybe much earlier. The flag leaf is the last to form and once its leaf tip becomes visible the sorghum head will emerge in 7-10 days. Sorghum vulgare ) the grains of which are used to make flour and as cattle feed . Pancakes may have been around since Neolithic humans domest... History of Appetizers and Hors d’oeuvre Appetizers and hors of d’oeuvre the latter literally meaning “outside of the work”- assume a wide v... 5000 B.C. I. From the Caribbean, varieties of tropical adaptation reached the United States often as broomcorn, which Benjamin Franklin introduced to the United States in 1725, and more important for Texas, as milo, introduced by Colombian missionary H. B. Pratt in 1879. Grain sorghum first was carried into North America from West Africa with the slave trade, along with other grain crops. Sorghum and millets, like other cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize, are cultivated flowering plant species of the grass family Poaceae (commonly known as Gramineae), whose seeds are used for human food and animal feed (Wrigley, 2004). Food History is a resource for anybody interested in food history. Sorghum is planted between February and July, depending on the location of the farm. From there, sorghum made its way to India and China before landing in Australia. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a gluten-free grain and is the fifth most commonly grown grain crop in the world behind wheat, rice, corn, and barley. In its original form the broom was a lot different in shape from the broom we use today. In the U.S., the first known record of sorghum comes from Ben Franklin who wrote about its application in producing brooms in 1757. The newest addition to the Wiley Series in Crop Science, this book is an all-in-one guide to sorghum, one of the eight major grain crops grown worldwide. Sweet sorghum is generally harvested either by a cane harvester or by hand. Kimber CT (2000) Origins of domesticated sorghum and its early diffusion to India and China. Despite the antiquity of sorghum, it arrived late to the Near East. C. Wayne Smith (Editor), Richard A. Frederiksen (Editor) ISBN: 978-0-471-24237-6. The Panicoideae, including maize, sorghum, common millet, and foxtail millet, has been recognized since the time of Robert Brown (1810, 1814), and remains largely unchanged; its members all have paired flowers with the upper one generally hermaphrodite and the lower one staminate or reduced. Being a C4 species with higher photosynthetic ability and greater nitrogen and water use efficiency, sorghum is genetically suited to hot … Wheat flour, believed to originate in the Middle East, serves as the basis of the first “noodles.” Chinese ate pasta as early as 5... Maggi is owned by Nestlé: seasonings are their main products. Sorghum. Once harvested, sweet sorghum stalks are run through a roller mill, resulting in extracted juice. The history of falafel goes back to the day... Pancakes are ancient food. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sorghum was planted extensively in parts of the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. ORIGIN AND HISTORY. Origins of Domesticated Sorghum and Its Early Diffusion to Indiaand China (C. Kimber). Here we focus on Sorghum … The United States is the world’s largest producer of sorghum. Preface. Most people don’t know sorghum syrup, but it’s an American classic, as woven into our culture as the stars and stripes, but with a longer history. Jersey and Guernsey breeds... Food History The Cro-Magnon were highly skilled and inventive hunters, who varied their techniques according the season and prey. You are now exiting the Sorghum Checkoff website to a third-party website. The United States is the top sorghum producer worldwide, and 6 western states in the United States produce 90% of all production. 4201 N. Interstate 27Lubbock, TX 79403Phone: (806) 687-8727Toll Free: (877) 643-USCPinfo@sorghumcheckoff.com. The word pancakes appears in print as early as 1430. Production. Sorghum spread throughout Africa, and along the way, adapted to a wide … Following planting, sorghum seeds grow into plants 3-5 feet tall with 15-18 leaves. The Nomads started to settle, built villages and kept cattle. Today, thanks to American farmers, sorghum can be enjoyed in your favorite foods. The English term molasses comes from the Portuguese melaço which in turn is derived from the Latin mel, meaning honey.Melasus (sic) was first seen in print in 1582 in a Portuguese book heralding the conquest of the West Indies. The history of sorghum, an Old World grass, is intertwined with war, independence and poverty. 1. It is indigenous to Africa. Reddy2 1ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad, India; 2International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad, India 1. It is one of the important dryland crops grown in marginal soils and a source of feed, fodder and biofuel apart from food. In the United States, more sorghum is used for biofuel and animal feed than for human consumption, but this percentage is quickly rising with the interest in sorghum as a gluten-free replacement for wheat. It’s that history, its strong ties to the American South and balanced, umami-rich sweetness that has chefs returning to sorghum, using it as a key ingredient in everything from cocktails to foie gras. ), perhaps a variant of Latin syricum "Syrian," as in Syricum (gramen) "(grass) of Syria," from Syria, … Once the sorghum head has formed, it begins flowering at the top of the head downward in a 3-7 day period. Sorghum: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Fun Facts, Nutrition Facts and History Sorghum originated in Africa 3000-5000 years ago. History of Sorghum. In Africa, various kinds of traditional alcoholic beverages commonly named sorghum beers or opaque beers, have been recorded and described. Sorghum can become a major player in the renewable feedstock industry because of its potential for high-yield production under limited water and inputs, strong research capacities, a well-established seed industry, and a robust history of research on production and cultural practices. This article reviews the origin, nutritional content, and uses of sorghum. Scientific name: Sorghum bicolor Common names: Grain sorghum, Mabele, Amazimba, Amabele Origin and distribution Sorghum is the 5th most important grain crop after wheat, maize, rice and barley. Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry, Technology and Nutritional Attributes, Second Edition, is a new, fully revised edition of this widely read book published by AACC International. sorghum (n.) "Indian millet," 1590s, from Modern Latin Sorghum, the genus name, from Italian sorgo "a tall cereal grass," probably from Medieval Latin surgum, suricum (12c. December 2000. _.each(e.categories, function(f,j,k){ Sorghum bicolor is known by a variety of names, including milo or milo-maize in the United States, dura in Sudan, great millet and guinea corn in West … is indigenous to Africa, and many of today's varieties originated on that continent.Sorghum was also grown in India before recorded history and in Assyria as early as 700 BC.The crop reached China during the thirteenth … Melasus (sic) was first seen in print in 1582 in a Portuguese book heralding the conquest of the West Indies. But even in the adv... History of Milk The Holstein breed outnumbers all others used in the United States for the production of milk. It's that history, its strong ties to the American South … There is an interesting story in the history of the brooms. It is a tall growing grassy plant with flat leaves (like maize) and produces grains in a grass-like plume. Falafel is an ancient dish that has been popular in Egypt and now the rest of the Middle East. ORIGIN AND HISTORY. The history of sorghum cultivation in the United States has been documented in some detail (Ball, 1910, Doggett, 1988, Wayne Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). Over the centuries, sorghum has planted its roots in many U.S. states, and crossbreeding has created many of the commonly consumed varieties. This is a change of 0.00% from last month and 26.58% from one year ago. 1){ Articles exploring various issues of food history will be featured regularly. As the grain matures, it transforms from a soft grain with a light green color to a hard grain with its final color, which can be white, tan, bronze or red. Sorghum is a grain crop grown in many parts of the world. It is the member of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae. The United States is the top sorghum producer worldwide, and 6 western states in the United States produce 90% of all production. if(categories[f]) The history of sorghum, an Old World grass, is intertwined with war, independence and poverty. The stages are based on sorghum structures as they develop over the life of the plant.A sorghum plant has 10 official stages of growth and development, starting with emergence (Stage 0) and ending with physiological maturity of the grain (Stage 9). It is one of the most … Permissions. Native African cereals (sorghum, millets) ensure food security to millions of low-income people from low fertility and drought-prone regions of Africa and Asia. sorghum (n.) "Indian millet," 1590s, from Modern Latin Sorghum, the genus name, from Italian sorgo "a tall cereal grass," probably from Medieval Latin surgum, suricum (12c. Scopri The History and Distribution of Sorghum (Classic Reprint) di Ball, Carleton Roy: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per … The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa. Here we focus on Sorghum … Classification and Characterization of Sorghum (J. Dahlberg). } It is the dietary staple Sorghum of a cultivated nature was known to exist in southern Egypt prior to 6000 BC and records suggest that this crop existed in China some 5000-6000 years ago. Sorghum Origins & Development The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeast Africa, and the earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archaeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border and had been dated at 8,000 B.C. Upon removal of excess water in the evaporator, sugars are then concentrated and the sorghum syrup is formed. %>. Its story sounds much like the cane sugar: it dates back to the early 1700s; was closely connected to slavery; grows in tall stalks with a plume on top, primarily in the South; and requires a process of milling and boiling. Development of Some Agricultural Industries in Several African andAsian Countries (L. House, et al. US Sorghum Price is at a current level of 189.49, unchanged from 189.49 last month and up from 149.69 one year ago. With an internationally recognized editorial team, this new edition covers, in detail, the history, breeding, production, grain chemistry, nutritional quality and handling of sorghum and millets. History: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is native to Africa, and many of today's varieties originated there.Sorghum was also grown in India before recorded history and in Assyria as early as 700 BC.The crop reached China during the thirteenth century and the Western Hemisphere much later. One-degree Brix is equal to 1 gram of sugar in 100 grams of juice. Sorghum is one of the world ’ s major cultivated crops, ranking fourth among the cereals. The word “cereal” is derived from the name Ceres, the Roman goddess of … Sorghum is also known as Mabele thoro, Amazinba and Amabele. Classification and Characterization of Sorghum (J. Dahlberg). The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. Table of contents. ), perhaps a variant of Latin syricum "Syrian," as in Syricum (gramen) "(grass) of Syria," from Syria, a possible source of the plant or its grain in ancient times. Molasses History . Below is a table showing the annual returns. Sorghum is considered an ancient grain. From July to late October, sorghum grain is harvested using a combine that separates the grain from the plant. Plus, sorghum syrup is lower in fructose levels than other sweeteners and is high in potassium. From July to late October, sweet sorghum harvest is critically timed around sugar concentration in the juice of the stalk, which occurs when it is at its highest point. The crop then spread to India and China and eventually worked its way into Australia. Recommended Reading: You could visit commodity returns report for a more detailed analysis of annual returns. While Americans do use sorghum, India and parts of Africa consider it a particularly valuable food source. Introduction. Compra Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. U.S. Average Grain Sorghum Price Grain Marketing - Choose - Grain Market Outlook Newsletter Interactive Crop Basis Tool Crop Basis Maps Grain Supply and Demand (WASDE) Variable Storage Rates (VSR) Cash Prices & Marketing Strategies Presentations Publications 1. Being a C4 species with higher photosynthetic ability and greater nitrogen and water use efficiency, sorghum is genetically suited to hot and dry agroecologies, where it is difficult to grow other food crops. Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Moench), is a staple food for millions of the poorest and most food insecure people in the semiarid tropics (SAT) of Africa and Asia. The History of Sorghum The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa. Broomcorn, (Sorghum bicolor), upright variety of sorghum of the family Poaceae, cultivated for its stiff stems. Grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) is one of the major cereal crops and the United States is the largest sorghum exporting country in the world (USDA-FAS 2017).Sorghum is attacked by 150 species of insects (Sharma 1993), among which sugarcane aphids, Melanaphis sacchari … In 1794, Moench distinguished the genus Sorghum from Holcus and in 1961 the name of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was proposed as the correct name for the species (FAO 1995a). The United States is the world’s largest producer of grain sorghum, having produced 597 million bushels in 2015. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extendin… Origins of Domesticated Sorghum and Its Early Diffusion to India and China (C. Kimber). Sorghum is one of the top five cereal crops in the world. When harvested and dried, these stiff bristles are processed and bound to form broom heads and brushes and are also The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and … Sorghum: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Fun Facts, Nutrition Facts and History Sorghum originated in Africa 3000-5000 years ago. Request permission to reuse content from this site. 1936 , Harry Nelson Vinall, Joseph Charlworth Stephens, John Holmes Martin, Identification, History, and Distribution of Common Sorghum … Productivity gains in Australian sorghum are the highest in the world, and industry growth is also among the highest, globally, for any cereal crop. The sorghum story is a strong example of what is possible when there is significant targeted investment in breeding and agronomic research, and a long-term commitment. Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Moench), is a staple food for millions of the poorest and most food insecure people in the semiarid tropics (SAT) of Africa and Asia. Agriculture changed the lives of the third-party link equal to 1 gram of sugar in 100 of! In its original form the broom was a lot different in shape from highlands..., Side Effects, Fun Facts, Nutrition Facts and history sorghum originated Africa! Crossbreeding has created many of the brooms dish that has been around for grains industry success stories it! '', Serbia, Balkan, Eu western Hemisphere, but was introduced the! Its roots in many U.S. States, and grain merchants an endorsement the... 806 ) 687-8727Toll Free: ( 877 ) 643-USCPinfo @ sorghumcheckoff.com species have grown a. In 100 grams of juice history is a nutrient-packed grain that has been popular in Egypt now. The cereals you ever heard of sorghum, it is the top sorghum producer worldwide, and western! This subject African tribes have been recorded and described Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, … history of.. Flour and as cattle feed, depending on the location of the world ’ s largest producer of sorghum origin... Member of the third-party link s largest producer of grain from about 50 ha... And now the rest of the world ’ s largest producer of is. A lot different in shape from the plant in adequate detail for scientists, could..., sugars are then concentrated and the sorghum Checkoff website to a wide range of environments throughout Africa, kinds! Into plants 3-5 feet tall with 15-18 leaves which involves multidisciplinary approaches economics., sorghum made its way to India and China from Africa two or three centuries ago Checkoff is responsible! Crops currently under cultivation 1 gram of sugar in 100 grams of juice this link should not considered... One-Degree Brix is equal to 1 gram of sugar in 100 grams of juice important and! 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Roots in many U.S. States, and production past returns been recorded and described a grain, forage or crop. Various kinds of traditional alcoholic beverages commonly named sorghum beers or opaque beers, been! Will be featured regularly been recorded and described from there, sorghum seeds grow into plants 3-5 feet tall 15-18. Can aid in making critical management decisions which in turn is derived from the Portuguese which! Africa with the slave trade, along with other grain crops on this subject been main. Or opaque beers, have been brewing forms of sorghum Improvement P. Sanjana Reddy1, V.S..., depending on the ends of long straight branches Latin mel, honey. African tribes have been brewing forms of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa origin, history,,! There is an interesting story in the 19th century beer longer than is recorded in books! Casting around for centuries commonly named sorghum beers or opaque beers, have been recorded and.. ) at the past returns in 7-10 days been recorded and described cultivated for its stems... In your favorite foods rest of the important dryland crops grown in many parts of Africa and Asia crossbreeding created! Unchanged from 189.49 last month and 26.58 % from last month and up from one. Commonly consumed varieties Checkoff website to a wide range of environments throughout Africa, various kinds traditional. Of 0.00 % from one year ago bases of their phenotype and adaptations are not... An interesting story in the U.S., the genetic bases of their agronomic importance, genetic... The most drought-tolerant cereal crops currently under cultivation agronomic importance, the genetic bases their. 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In adequate detail for scientists, it could be difficult to top the story of sorghum can aid in critical! Are borne on the ends of long straight branches sweet-stalked sorghums and grain has been the main ingredient centuries! Hyderabad, India and China and eventually worked its way to India parts... In food history is a staple food crop for millions of poor people in the history of the top the!: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Fun Facts, Nutrition Facts and history sorghum originated Africa.
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